LOGIBAT - TCO tool for e-trucks
The TCO model does not only look at the purchase price of the electric truck, but at the total cost-including, for example, charging infrastructure, subsidies, depreciation, maintenance and other similar items. Within the model, the user can vary all relevant parameters to see their influence on the price per kilometer. Although the cost of deploying zero-emission road transport vehicles is the core of the model, annual CO2 emissions are also determined in addition.
Hereunder the list of assumptions taken for the different elements of the model:
1) General assumptions
This TCO tool focuses on the comparison of zero emission, battery electric vehicles. Other technologies have been analysed during the project, but are not integrated into the model and calculations.
The TCO tool compares thus battery electric trucks with diesel equivalent models. We have chosen a specific scope of vehicles being all truck types from a total GTC as from 16t.
The tool uses default values that are linked to standard settings for 6 different use-cases (or application scenarios), but allows the user to adjust them in various steps.
The tool allows a user to simulate the impacts for one vehicle and scenario at a time. Though, by using the functionality of exporting the results in xls files, the user can combine different calculations and therefore come up with a total calculation for a fleet.
Recurring costs are kept fixed and are discounted by the tool over the lifetime, using a discount rate of 5,1% (parameter will be adjusted as part of maintenance process of the tool).
2) Scenario's
The functionalities are not different between the scenarios. Here is the list of default values that are set in function of a scenario chosen:
  • Daily distance: based on reference values from interviews with the sector and constructors, between 100km/day (for municipal) and 600km/day (for long-haul)
  • Payload and vehicle weight: even though every case will be different, we set pre-defined default values for the maximum payload, as well as GTW
  • Vehicle equipment: e.g. cooling for city distribution set as standard
  • Charging scenario: per scenario there is a standard charging scenario
  • For illustration a list of available vehicles at the time the tool has been developed (non-exhaustive and only for illustration)
3) Energy/fuel related costs
We assume constant prices over the lifetime. This is a simplified assumption, but given current market and geopolitical situation, this is the option that has been chosen.
For both, electricity and diesel fuel, we have taken rounded average values currently applicable in the market. They all can be adjusted, so should rather be seen as an average starting basis. In particular, energy prices can vary significantly depending on type of charging option, underlying energy contracts, and the usage or not of own energy production facilities (e.g. solar panels).
In the recharging scenario chosen, the user can compose a mix of different charging options and their average percentage. As an example, a scenario could be that the vehicle is charged 80% on average at the depot location, and 20% at public fast chargers during a trip. Based on the individual prices and percentages, the tool then calculates a blended rate.
4) Vehicle costs
We have foreseen an individual calculation of the following cost elements: vehicle chassis, body equipment and battery.
For the vehicle chassis we use average values as default linked to the tonnage of a vehicle. They are based on information received from multiple companies, but don't take into account, neither specific vehicle types, nor, any commercial effects of negotiated price reductions that might apply. All this needs to be adjusted by the user if applicable.
5) Other costs
The tool allows to enter monthly costs related to repair and maintenance, as well as insurance.
Those costs are kept constant over the lifetime and don't integrate any inflation effects.
6) Battery
For each type of vehicle and scenario chosen, we work with default assumption on consumptions and average distances, which determine the suggested battery size of the electric vehicle.
We use further the following default values for batteries, without further distinguishing between different technologies and further market evolutions:
  • Battery pack cost: 300 €/kWh - this parameter can be adjusted by the user in the tool
  • Battery density: 6.3 kg/kWh - fixed value, though will be adjusted over the years on the basis of the evolution of technologies
7) Consumption
The total consumption is composed of the consumption of the vehicle itself, as well as the energy needed for any kind of equipment integrated in the vehicle. The user can use all applicable equipment elements (e.g. cooling and also a loading crane), which then will be added together.
The consumption of the vehicle is based on the weight and usage.
All consumption values can be adjusted. They are all expressed in energy consumption per km distance.
8) Private charging infrastructure
We assume that most users will also need to invest in own charging infrastructure. The user can select a type of charger (some pre-defined types or customized), for which we use default values for the investment cost. Those costs are variable in function of specific situation, e.g. if the electrical installation needs to be reinforced, cabling to be foreseen, etc.
These costs are expressed as full investment costs, but can be split over multiple vehicles. As the tool only calculates the TCO for one vehicle at a time, the user needs to assign a percentage of this cost to be linked to the vehicle.
In certain circumstances the user might also want to set the cost to 0, e.g. in case this cost is financed by a third party. This then might have an effect on (additional) cost in electricity.
9) Electric Road System (ERS)
A specific function is to integrate the usage of an electric road system that could be used by the vehicle for charging while driving on specific roads. If chosen, the user needs to indicate the % of total kilometers (on average) the vehicle will be able to make use of this charging option. The tool will then also automatically add the required component to the vehicle, mentioned as pantograph (which has then influence on total cost, as well as weight of the vehicle).
Both, the cost of the pantograph, and also the electricity cost when using the ERS can be adjusted by the user.
10) Policy interventions
At the moment of the development of this tool, the following relevant elements have been integrated that are grouped under policy interventions, costs and subsidies:
  • Purchase subsidies vehicle
  • Purchase subsidies charging infrastructure
  • Tax reduction
  • Refund on professional usage of energy used
  • Toll collect (incl. the indication of the percentage distances covered by toll-roads)
CriteriaSmall CompanyMedium-sized company
Employeesless than 50 FTEless than 250 FTE
OR annual turnovermaximum 10 million eurosmaximum 50 million euros
OR total assetsmaximum 10 million eurosmaximum 43 million euros
The calculation of the tax reduction can be spread over the lifetime or in some cases applied only in one year. The tool doesn't distinguish this difference, since the effect on the TCO calculations are very limited.
11) CO2 equivalent emissions calculation
The calculation of CO2 equivalent emissions is done by a lifecycle assessment model using multiple values.
These values were calculated with the LCA model carculator_truck (https://carculator-truck.readthedocs.io) that uses the VECTO driving cycles for urban, regional and long haul transport for this purpose.
Furthermore, we use emission factors for the trucks, charging infrastructure, batteries and diesel from the LCA model.
For fuels, the following assumptions are made: the Belgian diesel mix (including blended biofuels) is used for all diesel trucks. For electric vehicles, we use the Belgian energy mix (status 2022).